Nazarene Space

1 Paul, an emissary; not from the sons of men, and not by the hand of a son of man, but
by the hand of Yeshua the Messiah, and Eloah His Father, who raised Him from among
the dead,
2 And all the brothers that are with me, to the assemblies that are in Galatia:
3 Favor and shalom be with you, from Eloah the Father and from our Adon Yeshua, the
Messiah,
4 Who gave His nefesh for our sins, that He might deliver us from this evil world
according to the will of Eloah the Father;
5 To Him be the glory forever and ever, Amen.
(Gal. 1:1-5 HRV)

Who were the Galatians?  They were a colony of Gauls.  Gauls had migrated from an area just north of the Assyrian Empire across Europe to the area we know today as France.  The HRV appendix map 1 shows the Ancient WOrld as known to the Hebrews.  You will see the land we know today as France was Gaul.  These Gauls were also known as Celts... they migrated across the English channel into the Brittish isles... thus the Celts spoke "Gealic".  According to Obadiah 1:20 the House of Israel would migrate to a place called Tzarfat... this is the Hebrew word for "France" in fact Rashi's commentary on Obadiah 1:20 says that this refers to France.  These "Gauls" were GAL-aeens who had been exiled by the Assyrians to the land north of Assyria,  As they passed through the area known now as Turkey they created a colony there called GAL-atia.  If one compares the openning of James and 1Kefa there is an obvious parallel.  One will notice that "the twelve tribes scattered among the nations" in James is said in 1Kefa to include "Galatia".

So this letter is addressed to a group of Gauls, of lost sheep of the House of Israel.

Ok I will post more later as we go line by line through Galatians.


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6 I am amazed how quickly you are being turned from the Messiah who called you by
His favor, to another good news:
7 Which is not [a Good news]. However, there are some which are troubling to you and
desire to pervert the Good News of Messiah.
8 Now also, if we, or an angel from Heaven, should proclaim apart from what we have
proclaimed, he should be accursed.
9 Thus that from before I said, and now again I say, That if anyone proclaims to you
apart from what you have received, he should be accursed.
10 For now do I persuade the sons of men, or Eloah? Or do I seek to please the sons of
men? For if until now I had pleased the sons of men, I would not have been a servant of
the Messiah.
11 But I make known to you, my brothers, that the Good News which was proclaimed
from me, was not from a son of man,
12 For also I did not, from a son of man, receive it or learn it: but by the revelation of
Yeshua the Messiah.
(Gal. 1:6-12 HRV)

Now the true Gospel is "the word of truth" which is to be "obeyed" (Col. 1:5; 2Thes. 1:8). Now the Torah is the "word" (Is. 2: 3) and the Torah is "the truth" (Ps. 119:142, 152) so then it would seem that the true Gospel is the Torah.

In fact the "Gospel" is the message Yeshua taught (Mt. 4:23) in fact He taught it in the Temple (Lk. 20:1). According to Mt. 4:12-17 Yeshua's message was the "light" of Is. 8:23-9:1 and if we look at Is. 8:20 we see that this "light" is the Torah. Also according to Matthew 12:17-21 Yeshua's message was the Torah as quoted in Is. 42:1-4.

The "Gospel" or "Good News" is the Torah.

Note verse 7 refers to the "Good News of Messiah" later in Gal. 6:2 wer read of the "Torah of Messiah".

Thus when we read:

6 I am amazed how quickly you are being turned from the Messiah who called you by
His favor, to another good news:
7 Which is not [a Good news]. However, there are some which are troubling to you and
desire to pervert the Good News of Messiah.

We may understand it thus:

6 I am amazed how quickly you are being turned from the Messiah who called you by
His favor, to another [Torah]:
7 Which is not [true Torah]. However, there are some which are troubling to you and
desire to pervert the [Torah] of Messiah.

As we continue in this letter we will find that Paul is defending the Torah of Messiah from a perversion of the Torah.

(To be continued soon)
So you could say it is the Letter of Paul to the French.
Not exactly, the Galatians colonized Turkey before another group of Gauls made it to France... the Gauls are a minority among the French people today. Most Frenchmen are decedents of the Normans.

Robert Robinson said:
So you could say it is the Letter of Paul to the French.
If people have questions or comments that is fine, but this is not a discussion in which to paste several paragraphs from another commentary.
13 For you have heard of my way of life that was from before, which was in Judaism:
that I especially persecuted the assembly of Eloah and was destroying it.
14 And I excelled in Judaism, more than many of my peers who were my countrymen,
and I was especially zealous in the teaching of my fathers.
(Gal. 1:13-14 HRV)

It is clear from a comparison with Acts 23:6 where Paul says in the present "I am a Pharisee" it is clear that Paul is comparing his former life in Judaism with his current life in Judaism.

"I was especially zealous in the teaching of my fathers"

The first century writer Josephus writes of the Pharisees:

"...the Pharisees have delivered to the people a great many observances by
succession from their fathers, which are not written in the law of
Moses;..."
(Josephus; Ant. 13:11:6)

(to be continued)
I have the HRV, but I don't have a map. Could you post a link, or email it to me?
No. not the Normans. The Franks. Another barbarian people.

Also you can't use the term "most" anymore. There are plenty of 4th and 5th generation non-whites/non-natives in France.

James Trimm said:
Not exactly, the Galatians colonized Turkey before another group of Gauls made it to France... the Gauls are a minority among the French people today. Most Frenchmen are decedents of the Normans.

Robert Robinson said:
So you could say it is the Letter of Paul to the French.


As you can see from the picture above, that is the location of Galatia. Its in the middle of Asia Minor.

Paul never went to Gaul (France), but he did go all over 'Asia' (Asia Minor). We also know this was a historical place of the exiles along with a place of diaspora for Benjamin&Judah&Levi.

You will also notice the language 'scattered ' in James. I take this as a reference to the fact that Israelites were all over Asia Minor.

You could be right with the France hypothesis, but in the same way Paul never wrote to the Alexandrians (because he never went there). Paul would not have written to the Gauls.


Brian Forbes said:
I have the HRV, but I don't have a map. Could you post a link, or email it to me?
The Gauls began in the area just north of Assyria, they migrated across the continent settling in various places at various times. They settled in a region in the middle of Asia Minor which became called Galatia and others continued across Europe to Settle in "France", Ireland and Scotland. The Galatians were Gauls ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galatia ) .

Chad Evans said:


As you can see from the picture above, that is the location of Galatia. Its in the middle of Asia Minor.

Paul never went to Gaul (France), but he did go all over 'Asia' (Asia Minor). We also know this was a historical place of the exiles along with a place of diaspora for Benjamin&Judah&Levi.

You will also notice the language 'scattered ' in James. I take this as a reference to the fact that Israelites were all over Asia Minor.

You could be right with the France hypothesis, but in the same way Paul never wrote to the Alexandrians (because he never went there). Paul would not have written to the Gauls.
15 But when it pleased that One who had set me apart, from the womb of my mother, and
called me by His favor,
16 To reveal His Son in me; that I should proclaim Him among the Goyim, I did not
immediately reveal [this] to flesh and blood.
17 And I did not go to Yerushalayim to the emissaries who were before me, but I went to
Arabia and again returned to Darm'suk,
18 And after three years, I went to Yerushalayim to seek Kefa, and remained with him
fifteen days: 1654
19 But I did not see the other emissaries except Ya'akov, the brother of our Adon.
20 Now these things that I write to you before Eloah; I do not lie.
21 After these things, I came to the regions of Syria and of Cilicia,
22 And the assemblies in Y'hudah, that were in Messiah, did not know me personally.
23 But this only had they heard: He who from before persecuted us, now behold, he is
proclaiming the Trust that from before time he cast down,
24 And they glorified Eloah by me.
(Gal. 1:15-24 HRV)

"Proclaim him among the Goyim (Gentiles)"

Let me begin by examining the Nazarene Commentary on Isaiah 8:14 as cited
by Jerome:


The Nazarenes, who accept Messiah in such a way
that they do not cease to observe the old law
explain the two houses as the two families, viz.
of Shammai and Hillel, from whom originated the Scribes
and the Pharisees. Akiba, who took over their school,
is called the master of Aquila the proselyte, and
after him came Meir who has been succeeded by Joannes
the son of Zakkai and after him Eliezer and further
Telphon, and next Joseph Galilaeus and Joshua up to
the capture of Jerusalem. Shammai then and Hillel
were born not long before the Lord; they originated
in Judea. The name of the first means "scatterer"
and of the second "unholy", because he scattered and
defiled the precepts of the Torah by his traditions
and deutroseis. And these are the two houses who did
not accept the Savior who has become to them ruin and
scandal.


Now I want to clarify two things here. First of all the Nazarene
commentary here is not giving the Pashat (literal meaning) of the passage
but a MIDRASH (an allagoical meaning) for the passage. This Midrash draws
an allagorical relationship between the two houses of Israel (the House of
Israel and the House of Judah) and the House of Shammai and the House of
Hillel. The basis for this Midrash is a wordplay on the names Shammai and
Hillel which sound in Hebrew like the words for "scatterer" and "unholy".
"Scatterer" ties the House of Shammai allegorically to
the "scattered" House of Israel. "Unholy" ties the House of Hillel to the
House of Judah.

Two things are important to note:

1. The Midrash is not identifying an allegory to the two houses
themselves, but to the STUMBLING (see Is. 8:14) of the two houses.

2. The Midrash is not attacking Hillel and Shammai themselves but the
Houses or schools of Rabbinic thought that arose after them in their names
(as is clear from the linage of Rabbis that came after them), The purpose
of this portion of the Midrash is to link Rabbinic Judaism to the
"stumbling" of the House of Judah discussed in this section of Isaiah.

This section of the commentary is purely midrashic (allagorical) and
tells us little about the Nazarene understanding of the Pashat (literal
meaning) of this passage.

But now lets look at the Nazarene commentary on Is. 9:1-4 (8:23-93 in
Jewish versions) as cited by Jerome:

The Nazarenes, whose opinion I have set forth above,
try to explain this passage in the following way:
When Messiah came and his proclaiming shone out,
the land of Zebulon and Naphtali first of all were
freed from the errors of the Scribes and Pharisees
and he shook off their shoulders the very heavy yoke
of the Jewish traditions. Later, however, the proclaiming
became more dominant, that means the proclaiming was
multiplied, through the Goodnews of the emissary Paul
who was the least of all the emissaries. And the goodnews
of Messiah shone to the most distant tribes and the way of
the whole sea. Finally the whole world, which earlier walked
or sat in darkness and was imprisoned in the bonds of idolatry
and death, has seen the clear light of the goodnews.

(Note: The "Jewish traditions" in the context of this commentary refer to
Rabbinic Halachah of the fourth century CE with which the Nazarenes took
issue.)


Now Isaiah 9:1-4 refers to "Galilee of the GOYIM (nations/Gentiles)" but
identifies these "Gentiles" as the inhabitants of "the land of Zebulon and
Naphtali". Here the House of Israel is being identified as "Gentiles".
There are at least two other places in Scripture where the word "Gentile"
is used to describe Ephraim (the House of Israel). One of these is Gen.
48:19 where (in the Hebrew) Ephraim is told his descendent's will become "a
multitude of nations (GOYIM; Gentiles)" (compare Rom. 11:25 where the same
phrase is translated in the KJV as "fullness of the gentiles"). The other
case is in Rom. 9:24 which refers to "Jews" and "Gentiles" but then goes
on (in Rom. 9:25-26) to quote Hosea (Hos. 2:23; 1:10) to identify them
which the "Children of Judah" and "the Children of Israel" (Hosea 1:10-11;
2:23).

The Nazarene Commentary on Isaiah understands "you have multiplied the
nation" (Is. 9:3) to refer to Paul "the proclaiming was multiplied,
through the Goodnews of the emissary Paul... to the most distant tribes".
Therefore the ancient Nazarenes understood the "Gentiles" to whom Paul
primarily directed his message with the Ephraimite "Gentiles" of Isaiah
9:1-4 and with "the most distant tribes".

This comment in the Nazarene Commentary on Isaiah makes it clear that the
Ancient Sect of Nazarene Judaism held that Paul was an emissary to the
Ephraimites.

We have already established that these Galatians were in fact of the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel commonly known as Ephraim (after their foremost tribe).

Paul reminds his readers that he spent three years in Damascus (Gal. 1:17). This is no accident. Paul was reminding his readers that he knew what he was talking about. He had spent the required three years of study required to enter the Essene community, and not just anywhere, but at Damascus, the birthplace of Essene Judaism.

In Acts we read about Paul just before he became a believer in Messiah:

Now Shaul was yet full of the threat and anger of
murder against the talmidim of our Adon. And he
asked for letters from the Chief Cohen to give to
Darm’suk (Damascus) to the synagogues, that if he
should find any who follow in this way, men or
women, he might bind and bring them to
Yerushalayim.
(Acts 9:1-2)

Now why word Shaul want to go to Damascus to pursue the followers of Yeshua? As we learned in chapter one, the first followers of Yeshua were from the Essenes. We also learned that Essene Judaism was born in Damascus and that its followers, like the Nazarenes, called their movement “the Way”.

Now while on his way to Damascus Paul encounters the resurrected Yeshua and himself becomes a believer in Yeshua as the Messiah (Acts 9:3-7). AS instructed by Yeshua, Paul enters Damascus and makes contact with the followers of Yeshua there (Acts 9:8-19). In his letter to the Galatians Paul describes these events as follows:

And I did not go to Yerushaliyim to the emissaries
who were before me, but I went to Arabia and again
returned to Darm’suk (Damascus), and after three
years, I went to Yerushalayim to seek Kefa and
remained with him fifteen days.
(Gal. 1:17-18)

Why did Paul remain for three years in Damascus? Because it took three years to be fully admitted into the Essene community. As Josephus writes:

But now if any one has a mind to come over to their sect, he is not immediately admitted, but he is prescribed the same method of living which they use for a year, while he continues excluded'; and they give him also a small hatchet, and the fore-mentioned girdle, and the white garment. And when he has given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them; for after this demonstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years; and if he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society.
(Wars 2:8:7)

Paul went through the entire process of learning the ins and outs of Essene Judaism and he wants his Galatian audience to know that while he was a leading Pharisee scholar, he also studied Essenism for the required three years in its birthplace.
1 Now after fourteen years, I went up again to Yerushalayim with Bar Nabba, and
took with me Titus.
2 But I went up by revelation, and I made known to them the Good News that I was
proclaiming among the Goyim, and I showed it to those who were considered to be
something among them, lest vainly I had run or would run.
3 Even Titus that was with me, who was an Aramean, was not compelled to be
circumcised.
4 But because of false brothers who entered among us, that they might spy on the
freedom that we have in Yeshua the Messiah; thus to enslave us:
5 Also, not for one hour, did we submit to their oppression, that the truth of the Good
News might remain to you.
6 Now those that were considered to be something (but what they were was not of
concern to me),
7 But on the contrary, for they saw that I had been entrusted with the Good News of the
uncircumcision, like Kefa had been entrusted by the Circumcision:
8 For He who worked in Kefa in the emissariship of the Circumcision, also worked in
me in the emissariship of the Goyim.
9 And when they knew the favor that was given to me: Ya'akov, and Kefa, and
Yochanan, those who were considered to be pillars, gave the right hand of fellowship to
me and to Bar Nabba … that we proclaim among the Goyim and they among the
Circumcision.
10 They only [asked] that we remember the poor, and it was [also] a concern to me that I
do this.
(Gal. 2:1-10 HRV)

Even Titus that was with me, who was an Aramean,
was not compelled to be circumcised.
(Gal. 2:3 HRV)


“compelled” = The Aramaic word here is IT'ENAS literally “to be forced” from a root meaning “to act violently”.

The text is telling us not that Titus was not circumcised, but that he had done so voluntarily and not been circumcised by force as the Maccabeans had done:

Then Mattathias and his friends went round about, and pulled down the altars:
And what children soever they found within the coast of Israel uncircumcised,
those they circumcised by force.
1Macc. 2:45-46

In fact a comparison with Acts 15-16 will show that at this same time Timothy was also circumcised voluntarily and not by force.

Paul advocated the Pharisaic teaching of Antigones of Soko (who lived in the Maccabean era):

Antigones of Soko received [Torah] from Simeon the Righteous.
He used to say, “Be not like servants who serve their master
for the sake of wages, but be like servants who serve their
master with no thought of a wage – and let the fear
of Heaven be upon you.”
(m.Avot 1:3)

Paul did not want people to be circumcised by compulsion, either by the offer of a reward or the threat of a punishment, but from their own heart, out of the fear (respect) of YHWH, not trying to earn anything. This was at odds with hie Essene opponent who was compelling circumcisions as a method of earning salvation.

Ask yourself, are you learning from this teaching? Is this work worthy of your support? What other ministry provides this kind of teaching?
Do not forget to pay for your studies. They are made possible by your tithes and offerings.


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(to be continued soon)

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